Alberta election 2015 – survey results

Albertans will go to the polls May 5 to elect the next government. As part of the Western Producer’s provincial election coverage, we posed six questions to various farmers and ranchers.

Take the survey

Results will be posted below once moderated.

Here are the results: (UPDATED: Tuesday May 5, 2015 – 1400 CST)

Don Boles, Tulane Farms, Three Hills

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?
A: No, it impacts those that can afford it least, the most.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: It should encourage diversification and value added.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: The current health care administration in Alberta is poor. Some sort of reorganization/shakeup needs to occur.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?
A: With no children or grandchildren attending school and haven’t for several years, I’m out of the loop on this one.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: It likely could work OK once you get by the paperwork phase.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially?

A: The cost/price squeeze due to reduced commodity prices and high input prices, particularly fuel, and the extortion-level fertilizer prices.

Mary Readman, editor emeritus, Consort Enterprise, Consort

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: A sales tax hasn’t kept other provinces debt free, so why saddle Alberta with it?

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Knowledgeable people, for example farmers, should study diversification, not some ‘suit’ who has never been out of the city.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: Health care is the most serious concern in the province. Again, those with knowledge of what a rural community is like should be on an advisory board to get rural health care back to some semblance of common sense. With city hospitals overcrowded, rural hospitals could relieve the strain if used properly.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?
A: Education in the rural areas is very healthy but there is still need for money for maintenance and improvements.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?
A: This is a huge question that I am not qualified to answer.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially?

A: Markets. Fair prices.

Susan Schafers, egg farmer, Stony Plain

(Schafers is chair of Egg Farmers of Alberta but her responses are personal and not given on behalf of the EFA.)

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: Personally, I am not in favour of a sales tax in order to manage budget challenges. Over the last several decades, the government has, at times, faced significant financial challenges, and has always been able to avoid using a sales tax to increase revenue. I believe that the government should use cost-cutting measures.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Obviously, I am a strong agricultural advocate and our province has strength in many areas of primary agricultural production. Diversification and expansion should always be considered to continue to develop new markets, but never at the expense of primary production and commercial farms.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: I am fortunate to live in an area close to large urban areas and I have never had a concern accessing timely and quality health care.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Education is foundation for a strong economy. With having two children in the school system and one moving into post-secondary education, I feel that we have a very strong education system. Where I believe there could be improvement is in programming. There is little focus in post-secondary education for agricultural employees, particularly in the poultry sector. As well, I believe that learning about food and food production should be a stronger focus all through grades K-12.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?
A: Farm worker safety is an important issue for all agricultural employers. Before moving to mandatory compensation programming, I believe training and development and implementation of training and safety plans at the farm level is a better way.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Being in a supply-managed industry, having the provincial government support supply management in a public way is important. I also believe that having more training available for farm workers and wage subsidy programs will help to alleviate the chronic shortage of qualified workers.

Aaron Brower, president, Western Stock Growers Association, Aden

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: Alberta should not impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges because it would be a long-term hindrance to a short-term problem. It would create a major ripple effect that would create some short-term income to a government that has a major spending problem, but in result there will be less income to actually be spent in the economy. It would just be swallowed up in Edmonton. Bottom line, they have a major spending problem, not an income problem. When you have to tighten you belt, you start within your organization, not look everywhere else first.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?
A: Diversification is a trendy way to divert some of the real issues in agriculture. Not saying that some diversification is not needed but there is a lot of money and time wasted discussing it to death and not doing something about it. One of the bigger issues is around succession and the funds that it takes to carry it out.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?
A: The shortage of rural doctors and heath care facilities is a big concern for me as I am 60 miles from the closest hospital and that is a very minimal facility thanks to our top-heavy health care system. I think the health care system in our province needs a major restructure. The money in health care needs to be spent more on front line workers, doctors and health care facilities than on all the management.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?
A: The state of rural education in our province is in shambles. Every year more and more teachers are being cut from our schools. Classes are being amalgamated because there isn’t enough staff left. The standard of our education is dumbing down. … An example is the new math system where you don’t need to think of the correct answer, just (use) the right process. How is that going to work in the real world?

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?
A: No comment.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?
A: In our area one of the major issues has to do with the land use framework and the Species At Risk Act (SARA.) The implications and repercussions on both of these government mandates will be a major economic and social game changer in this province. The realities of some of these will be devastating to all local economies.

Larry Sears, rancher and chair of the Alberta Grazing Leaseholders Association, Stavely

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: Alberta should not impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges. There is a lot of fat yet to be cut from within government that needs to be redirected. Introducing a sales tax to address the deficit would remove the discipline that should be used when governing and using public trust and monies.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?
A: Agricultural diversification should only be encouraged through a positive business culture, less regulation and red tape and an optimistic vision for what this province can do for both production and value adding. Do not try to pick winners and losers. Just set the tone so everyone has the opportunity to develop their business or dream.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?
A: More rural doctors would be nice, but it will take a bit of a culture shift for the young professionals to see the advantage of small town or rural life.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?
A: I don’t think there is much wrong with rural education. It is available in some form or another to all those who want to take advantage of it. Students need to want to learn and understand why an education is important. Entitlement isn’t going to cut it.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?
A: I don’t think forcing farm employers into compensation programs is the way to go. There is a wide range of types, sizes and sophistication of agricultural operations. Many larger and progressive operations will have the necessary packages to attract employees.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?
A: Property rights are the most important issue farmers and ranchers face today. The ability to manage and plan not only for the present but for transition is one of the biggest keys for those of us in agriculture. Erosion of these rights by politicians or bureaucrats that do not understand how we operate is a constant worry. The productive sectors of the economy rely of predictable and bankable rules and regulations. More is not better.

Assar Grinde, beef producer, Bluffton

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: Yes, implement a sales tax. They are easy to collect, difficult to cheat and fair. Basic necessities like groceries are tax-exempt and low incomes could have rebates, similar to the federal GST rebates. The government has paid for its promises over the past 20 years with our natural resources instead of building up the Heritage Savings Trust Fund. It is like paying for annual operating expenses with seed stock and saying it is a successful management model.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?
A: Continue to support research, break down trade barriers, including between provinces, and encourage small business startups through tax incentives.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: My community is very fortunate to have a strong culture of family medicine and great care in our hospital, but I think there is a concern for recruiting young nurses and doctors into rural areas to replace retirees. I think the answer is to expose rural students to careers in health care while in high school. As well, Alberta universities could set up an adult-intake, rural medicine program, solely for students from rural areas who already have a degree and make a commitment to practicing in rural communities. Northern Ontario School of Medicine has a similar program.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?
A: I have been out of school for too long to have any valid comments.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: As a business owner, I prefer to manage risk for my own person privately (i.e. with disability insurance), and if I were to hire someone full time I would probably get coverage for them simply to protect my business from liability. I don’t think WCB coverage should be mandatory because I can see Occupational Health and Safety legislation following it onto our farms, and in my personal experience OHS is a bureaucratic nightmare.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: I think the end of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program has had some very negative effects on agriculture in Alberta across all sectors. I was not a supporter of the program, as I believe that if someone is good enough to work here in our communities they good enough to live here. Instead, there should be an agricultural work visa program that would lead to permanent residency over a period of years.

Bruce Beattie, dairy farmer, reeve of Mountainview County and former chair of Alberta Milk, Sundre

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: I am not in favour of imposing a sales tax similar to the current GST. Sales taxes are inherently regressive, with all income earners paying the same percentage. A “luxury” tax would make much more sense and could be targeted at a specific group of goods and services that are clearly discretionary in nature.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: The role of government should be one of facilitation to provide frameworks for diversification. Investment in training programs/education and physical assets such as high-speed internet capability will be crucial to any successful business growth in rural areas. The importance of a well-maintained transportation system cannot be underestimated.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: We are fortunate to have a dedicated group of health professionals in our area who have worked to establish a program of doctor attraction and attention. Funding from the local municipalities has aided the success of this program. I do live near the Highway 2 corridor, which is a great advantage. Other areas in the province are struggling to maintain their health care programs. We need much more stability in the management of AHS; a reduction of upper management along with investing in the front-line workers in the system. Some municipalities are able to provide funding toward facilities that will attract physicians. However, this creates a competitive environment with winners and losers.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Generally I believe that rural education is equivalent to that provided in the urban centres. Elimination of school boards would provide much needed funding toward the actual business of teaching. The recent election of a school trustee in Calgary with a five percent voter turnout demonstrates the current state of the board system. The belief in larger schools in urban centres has not been proven to provide a higher standard of education and may well lead more social problems at higher cost.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?
A: Farm workers deserve the same protection as any other member of the work force.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: High input costs along with volatile markets continue to be ongoing issues in agriculture, with no obvious solution. Producer organizations are continually challenged to provide more services on behalf of their membership but have difficulty generating sufficient resources to meet those responsibilities. Refundable check-offs have been partially responsible for this situation. Most other provinces and countries like Australia have provided such groups with mechanisms to ensure stable funding in order to meet their responsibilities. Producers need to continue to find ways to collaborate across commodities to ensure the most efficient use of limited resources.

Erna Ference, broiler producer and chair of Alberta Chicken Farmers, Black Diamond

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: For a long time I have been against Alberta having a sales tax. The province managed to govern and grow without one. Times and economies have changed and with the dramatic growth this province has experienced over the past years I have changed my position on this. Personally, I am no longer opposed to having a sales tax implemented via a HST. It’s progressive, would help stabilize provincial revenue flows, and would be easy to implement. I don’t like it, but think the time has come.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: By working closer with rural communities to see what their specific needs are. Who knows better than the people living there? Continuing support and expansion of programs for young people such as 4-H should be encouraged.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: The number of doctors and health care providers available and willing to work in rural communities continues to be a concern that the medical field and towns and villages grapple with on an ongoing basis. The government and medical association have a responsibility to provide for the medical needs of these rural areas and have an obligation to stepping up and working together to find solutions to these concerns by looking at creative ways to encourage and attract doctors and medical personnel to live, work and adopt the rural lifestyle and to look at alternate delivery means.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Declining enrolment and bussing are the largest areas of concern for rural education. I remember my children being the first ones on the bus and the last ones off when they attended school. Being on a bus for over an hour at a time is not ideal for a child. While there are some choices for students living in rural communities such as home schooling and long-distance learning through the internet, the importance of maintaining the ability to learn in a bricks and mortar school environment must not be dismissed. The government needs to keep schools in the rural community viable and available for this and future generations.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: There is no doubt that farm workers need to be provided with some form of work insurance. It’s the right thing to do. Whether it would be in the form of worker’s compensation (which is what we have on our farm) or some other type of insurance program, it needs further discussion. The public and government need to recognize that not all farms are the same and that is one of the reasons that industry and government needs to continue to work towards reaching an acceptable solution.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: There are many issues facing farmers in Alberta today: lack of movement on COOL, labour, ability of young farmers to buy farms, rising animal activism and increasing accountability and reporting to the public whether it is through animal care programs, food safety programs or environmental responsibilities. The most important item facing our industry would be ongoing government recognition and support of a balanced trade position.

Brenda Schoepp, farmer, author and international business mentor, Rimbey

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?
A: I don’t think Albertans are responsible for misallocation of funds. I can’t think it would advance the economic prospects of Albertans at all by taxing them more.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?
A: The province’s first role is to ensure an enabling platform for business that allows for collaborative action and entrepreneurship, especially small or medium enterprises. I think the province needs to have a long-term vision that allows for water and land for food production and have the conversation that agriculture and food is a societal need, not a secondary endeavour.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: I experience excellent rural health care that is always threatened with cutback and urbanization as doctors want to be in bigger centres. I see the province’s role as ensuring a knowledge and health based society to have educated, healthy citizens.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: I’ve seen it play out in several ways. Some schools are discriminated against with a lack of funding, resources and teachers and the students don’t have the opportunity for art, a second language or other courses. The other side is parents in different schools that band together to make it happen without the blessing of the province. I would like to see a long-term vision where we keep our young people in our community by offering inspiring education. Our education system needs to prepare our children for business instead of business taking our children away from education. If they’re bored or undereducated, business will take them away to work.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: Let’s at least put it out there in a package where employers and employees have some sort of protection. There are a lot of farm accidents out there. Have a program developed so it’s not cost prohibitive if you have one employee or 20 and have equal access to workers compensation or some sort of desirable insurance. We need to recognize farmers and their employees, who are often family, do need some sort of avenue to protect themselves. It could be workers compensation or something developed specifically for the farming community.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: I think it is a lack of appreciation for themselves, their importance to society, their contribution to community and their true potential as weavers of economic prosperity for this province and the nation. We have a contingent that looks at agriculture as a job instead of the profession that it is. We would come to government policy differently if we really, really bought into our potential.

Terry Schetzsle, rancher and cattle feeder, Veteran

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: I really believe we should have a sales tax because we have no other way to fund our debt and our operating costs. We have to get away from depending on the oil royalties.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: We should fund diversification projects that would keep value-added industry within the province. Instead of exporting live cattle, we need to be processing the meat and shipping the meat.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: I think it is a concern. If it carries on, we will have to consolidate more hospitals. In some cases it is really hard to attract doctors to isolated communities.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: There is need for new schools in some areas. There is a loss of autonomy with local school boards. Many of the decisions are made by central agencies and not by local school boards.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: No opinion.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: On the cattle side, we are in a terrific market. In the grain side, there is an issue with high input costs. There are terrible high input costs.

James Knievel, grain farmer and logging trucker, Manning

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: No. A sales tax should not be imposed by the government. The government must look at cutting costs and reducing the monies going out, not trying to increase monies coming in. We are already a very highly taxed society and all residents of Alberta cannot handle any more taxes.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Creating more processing jobs in Alberta is a must. Alberta must diversify its economy with value-added processing of its raw exports. Tax breaks, startup loans to new viable businesses could help diversify the ag sector and add much needed jobs to the economy. That should be a priority of the next government.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: It’s a huge concern for all in rural areas. It’s straightforward thinking and logic. Produce more rural doctors with our own universities. U of A and U of C should weigh the acceptance of medical students who want to practice in a rural location with a higher priority. We must look after our own first. It makes no sense to support our universities to train doctors so they can leave and practice outside of the province. Set a minimum requirement of graduating doctors who must be rural bound.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Most rural schools due to a lower number of students offer core courses less often, (so they are) having to rely on students to take courses by correspondence. This does not have that teacher/student interaction that is much needed for the teacher to get the highest ability of learning out of his or her student. Going forward, the problem will get worse instead of better, as rural school numbers continue to decline. Maybe shared resources between numerous schools, offering students the class via satellite, correspondence via satellite and somehow still allowing students to ask questions and interact with a teacher. Having a more structured classroom setting encourages the attention of the students.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: It’s a must, to protect both employee and more importantly the employer. All workers should be covered by WCB.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Corporate greed going unchecked. Railroad, chemical, fertilizer and grain companies have lost their conscience. The boards of these companies are relentlessly driven by higher profit. Every opportunity they are given, they take advantage of the farmer. The world today is a much smaller place than it was a few decades ago. It enables them to manipulate every and all situations.

Nora, Tofield

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: Yes. Sales tax is the fairest way to tax because people get taxed only on what they can afford to spend. Sales tax should not apply to food, health care or education.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Reduce the amount of money we need in order to qualify for agricultural programs. People getting into local production cannot make $10K for quite a few years, but local production and processing is the fastest growing and most interesting sector. Also, invest in value-add.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: Yes. It’s easy. Post a position and hire into it while offering a decent salary.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: We need more programs, especially in the arts and phys ed.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: Absolutely. Why ever not?

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Getting old, and looking behind with nobody willing to take over.

Tim Kennedy, Airdrie AB

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: No. Hurts the low income earner.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Value added. Read “The Road Not Taken”

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: No, but I drive 50 Kms to see my Doctor

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Average

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: Overdue, no more second class workers please

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Losing the CWB

Martin, Camrose Alta.

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: NO! Control spending, largest government in years.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Get business away from the large grain companies, back to when the Department of Ag actually did something. More staff are needed.

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: Always a concern as we are a smaller city. Pay for tuition with the deal they work in a smaller center for 7 years.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: A shame to shut down rural schools when larger centers are over crowded.

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: As farms get larger it should be there for them.

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Lack of Grain marketing options. We are at the mercy of the grain companies especially when we are not considered a “large” farm. When we lost the CWB, people thought we would have independence, but the opposite has happened. I can only sell to the dictatorship of these grain companies.

Kimberley, Airdrie Alta.

Q: Should Alberta impose a sales tax to manage budget challenges? If so, why? If not, why not?

A: No comment.

Q: In what ways do you think the province could or should encourage agricultural diversification?

A: Sure, farming

Q: Shortage of rural doctors and levels of rural health care are concerns for many. Is it a concern for you and if so, what do you think can be done about it?

A: Yes concerned, more students qualify for med school.

Q: Education is listed as a priority in most party platforms. What do you think about the state of rural education?

A: Mostly home school, doing fine, average

Q: What do you think about the idea of a mandatory requirement for Alberta farm employers to provide workers compensation coverage to employees?

A: Yes

Q: What is the most important issue facing Alberta farmers today, in your region and provincially? Other thoughts?

A: Technological changes occurring so fast

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