Research finds flies carry bacteria — some harmful to people and animals

They come every summer without fail, but flies are more than an aesthetic problem.

Animals stamp, swish and shake to rid themselves of these pesky insects. In addition to restlessness, painful fly bites and irritation cause livestock to lose condition.

Other effects of fly infestations include poor feed conversion rates, lower milk production and skin sores. Some types of flies make tiny cuts to the skin and then feast on the oozing blood. In severe instances, this blood loss can be substantial.

Other flies consume tears, mucous and skin cells. Larval stages of flies act like parasites, such as with nose bots in sheep and stomach bots in horses. Perhaps most arresting is when flies deposit eggs in open wounds. Left untreated, these fester wounds can become rife with maggots. Fly strike leading to maggots is a major issue in sheep production in many parts of the world, but flies also have the ability to pick up and spread harmful pathogens.

We already have evidence that flies are important for transmitting equine infectious anemia and the equine encephalitis diseases in horses. In cattle, flies may have an important role in spreading pink eye. Yet, there is much to learn about the role of flies in spreading infectious agents.

A study just published in the journal Scientific Reports applied modern genetic tests to understand the bacteria carried by house and blow flies. The international group of researchers, headed by Ana Carolina M. Junqueira of the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, analyzed 116 flies from sites within cities, rural and natural areas in the United States, Singapore and Brazil.

In total, they identified a remarkable 431 bacterial species carried by the two types of flies. Many of these are common bacteria found in decaying organic material and soil. However, they also found several types of bacteria that are capable of causing disease in people and animals. Among the identified bacteria were those that cause furunculosis in fish, erysipelas in several animal species and clostridial bacteria, salmonella and listeria.

In another line of investigation, the researchers also determined that the fly legs and wings harbour a large number of bacteria. Most previous studies have examined what flies carry in their guts rather than the outsides of their bodies.

These results show that flies may transmit bacteria via contact in addition to vomiting and pooping.

Of particular interest to human health, they found many flies carry Helicobactor pylori, the stomach bacteria that is associated with stomach ulcers and gastric cancer. The authors suggest that flies may be an important method of transmitting these bacteria among people. The role of this bacterium in animal diseases remains uncertain.

Collectively, the results of this study confirm that our squeamishness around flies is warranted. They have a tremendous ability to pick up bacteria from their environment and move it around.

The techniques of this study may be useful to the study of animal diseases. For instance, it may be helpful to examine the suite of bacteria carried by flies in cattle feedlots and hog barns to understand their role in pathogen maintenance between animal groups and transmission among animals.

This research also suggests that flies could be useful for detecting pathogenic bacteria in the environment. Germ-free flies released into an area could be later collected to see what bacteria they pick up. A study of this type could examine the role of flies in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Although there is much to learn about the bacterial communities of flies in agricultural settings, studies like this enforce the importance of fly management on farms.

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  • Denise

    So maybe ,just maybe, the factory hogs guys should be required to put covers on their hog slurry lagoons? I know that’s a lot of ask of them given they don’t want to spare the expense. Maybe taxpayers can pick up the tab?

    • old grouchy

      Hmmmmmmmmmmmmm – – – two different questions for you.
      1. Just how far do flies travel? (Snickering – – – they must fly at least 20+ km to bother this beleaguered urbanite! The set back distances for a modern hog barn as NOT small!!!!)
      2. Why are you not advocating for those same items to cover the lagoons where your own waste is processed?

      • Denise

        For your information, there are 2 hog operations near our place. One has 4 barns about 2 kilometres to the NW and another has 7 barns about 4 kilometres to the SW of our farm.
        I doubt you would find it funny to try and enjoy a summer BBQ on your deck, invaded by the stink of factory barns and lagoons, depending on the wind direction.
        Would you enjoy waking up in the middle of a beautiful summer night to the smell of hog odours wafting into your bedroom and having to get up and close your window?
        Oh ,did I forget to mention the flies?

  • Harold

    What is missing in this report are the benefits to nature that the flies produce. What is also missing from this report is the fact that all insects transmit bacteria to other locations and spit as well. Humans are covered head to toe with bacteria and a human’s mouth is not exempt. Does the elimination of flies eliminate the transference of harmful bacteria? Insects and flies do many bad things but this is not a license to alter them or to destroy them. In the most part, the human immune system is so badly compromised today by all the industry garbage that we now call food that we are more susceptible to disease than we have ever been and animals have not escaped our foolishness either. We create a breeding ground to produce the greatest amount of pests and then we set out to destroy the pests as though we hadn’t created the problem in the first place. Of course this is the willful blind side of the corporate science and the willful ignorance associated to wealth of the Elite. When we create massive Hog barns do we expect an abundance of pest growth and the problems of excessive bacteria growth or do we keep the illusion that nothing extra ordinary happens and the pests and bacteria just naturally and magically limit themselves to suit the industry. The corporate good is weighed by the bad and when the bad becomes greater than the corporate good then the good is eliminated but you don’t destroy nature to keep a corporate good. Whose illusion was it to think we can feed the planet from this tiny piece of real-estate and not suffer any of nature’s consequences? Is an ever expanding toilet a good thing? Of course this won’t stop the corporate science from trying to make nature obey them. In essence we fill our home with a hundred cats and expect the extra viruses and extra bacteria that they produce to stay in the outdoors. That is the intelligence of the corporate. The bacteria and viruses are the problem and not the corporation. There is no length that the corporate will not travel to keep their corporate safe. It is all about the money and nature be damned if it stands in their way.


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