Plants with varying bloom times provide food for beneficial insects
If the farmstead looks a bit messy and the fence lines are ragged, don’t feel guilty. Attribute it to thoughtful neglect.
Those untended areas can be food sources and homes for an array of wild insects that help agriculture with pollination.
Adam Ovinge, a beekeeper with Supernuc Apiaries near Granum, Alta., makes his living from honeybees, a species not native to Canada.
Although much attention is paid to honeybees, particularly lately due to concerns about colony collapse and pesticides, Ovinge isn’t worried about honeybee survival.
“People are going to find a way to make honeybees survive because we can make money at it,” said Ovinge.
“But all these native insects, they’re hanging by a thread because most people don’t even know they exist, and even more don’t care.
“They don’t see the benefit of them, but I think if we lose them, we’re going to see what they did.”
Alberta Agriculture ecologist Mark Wonneck agrees on the importance of wild insect pollinators. Collectively, their effect is immense.
“There’s no doubt they do play an economic role, for sure,” said Wonneck.
“Wild bees, just like honeybees, do a lot of pollination. In fact, they’re really quite efficient, especially the larger native bees like bumblebees.
“They’re also generalists, so they go to a lot of different kinds of flowers, so they’re really important and valuable.”’
As a member of the Alberta Beekeepers Association, Ovinge is working with others to communicate the importance of habitat for wild pollinators on the Prairies.
Part of that is encouraging farmers and municipalities to consider wild pollinator habitat when managing field edges, roadside ditches, parks and other places.
“Eventually we’re going to hit a point where we need pollination and it’s just not there, and we’re going to look around us and go, ‘holy crap, when did all those bumblebees and wasps and hover flies and all that vanish?’
“Because its not really very high on most people’s priority lists. Most of the time people see them as pests.”
Ovinge said he understands farmers’ need to spray for invasive weeds and to farm efficiently. GPS guidance allows farmers to seed from fencerow to fencerow, but in that process habitat is lost.
“Grass is easy. It’s great for preventing erosion, it grows fast, it gets good coverage … it’s everything. But if you’ve got nothing out there but grass, it’s basically a desert to most insects, except for the bad insects that people are generally spraying for,” said Ovinge.
Wonneck helped compile an Agriculture Canada publication entitled Native Pollinators and Agriculture in Canada, which outlines steps farmers can take to retain and promote beneficial wild insects.
He said there are more than 320 species of wild bees in Alberta alone and an unknown number of other insect species that help in pollination.
The key to their encouragement is variety. They need access to flowering plants from spring through to freeze up. That means canola, with its two-to-three week bloom window, won’t do the entire job.
“They need flower resources during the time that they’re active during the summer and what that basically means is they need a diverse array of flowering plants… that flower at different times and for different periods,” said Wonneck.
That is one reason both he and Ovinge appreciate the humble dandelion, which provides flowers throughout the season.
Later in the season, when the canola bloom is over, Ovinge has to scramble for other food sources for his honeybees. Wild pollinators will seek the same things.
“I love ranchers. Most of my bees spend most of their year on pasture, if I can find it, because then you get a mix. You get the dandelions in the spring. You get the alfalfa and legumes and sainfoins and clovers coming through the summer.”
A constant supply of different trees, shrubs and flowering plants is vital, agreed Wonneck. The distance between insect foraging areas is also important because many wild pollinators won’t fly too far from their nests.
Tips to protect wild pollinators:
- Retain potential nesting sites like bare soil patches, dead branches, deadfall, hollow-stemmed plants like raspberry, old rodent burrows.
- Create new habitat near fields or likely pollinator nesting areas.
- Locate so bees must travel no more than 150 metres to the flowers.
- Plant native flowering trees, shrubs and forbs, or pollen- and nectar rich legumes.
- Plant a variety, with types that have different bloom shapes, colours, heights and growth habits and bloom times.
- Minimize use of pesticides and herbicides.
- Use pesticides in early morning or after sunset if possible.
- Avoid herbicides on native flowering plants, especially when in flower.
- Consider grazing intensity and its effects on foliage diversity.